On this page a reference list is given of SWAP user manuals and scientific studies which employed SWAP or one of its predecessors.


1.    General reference to SWAP

2.    On the use of SWAP

3.    Soil water flow

4.    Evapotranspiration

5.    Irrigation management

6.    Drainage conditions

7.    Surface water management

8.    Plant growth

9.    Soil water extraction by roots

10. Soil moisture indicators for natural vegetations

11. Salinization

12. Solute transport

13. Soil water flow as affected by soil spatial heterogeneity

14. Sensitivity analysis

15. Regional analysis

16. Integration with other models


1.    General reference to SWAP

Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, R.P. Bartholomeus, P. Groenendijk, M. Heinen, R.F.A. Hendriks, H.M. Mulder, I. Supit, P.E.V. van Walsum, 2017. SWAP version 4; Theory description and user manual. Wageningen, Wageningen Environmental Research, Report 2780. Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/416321

Van Dam, J.C., P. Groenendijk, R.F.A. Hendriks and J.G. Kroes, 2008. Advances of modeling water flow in variably saturated soils with SWAP. Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 640-653. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0060

Groenendijk, P., Boogaard, H., Heinen, M., Kroes, J., Supit, I., & Wit, A. De., 2016. Simulation of nitrogen-limited crop growth with SWAP / WOFOST. Report 2721. Alterra Rapport, 2721. Available at:  http://edepot.wur.nl/400458

Kroes, J.G., J.G. Wesseling and J.C. Van Dam, 2000. Integrated modelling of the soil-water-atmosphere-plant system using the model SWAP 2.0 an overview of theory and an application. Hydrological Processes, 14, 1993-2002. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1099-1085(20000815/30)14:11/12%3C1993::AID-HYP50%3E3.0.CO;2-%23/abstract

Van Dam, J.C., 2000. Field-scale water flow and solute transport. SWAP model concepts, parameter estimation, and case studies. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/121243

2.    On the use of SWAP

Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, R.P. Bartholomeus, P. Groenendijk, M. Heinen, R.F.A. Hendriks, H.M. Mulder, I. Supit, P.E.V. van Walsum, 2017. SWAP version 4; Theory description and user manual. Wageningen, Wageningen Environmental Research, Report 2780. Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/416321

Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, P. Groenendijk, R.F.A. Hendriks and C.M.J. Jacobs, 2008.  SWAP version 3.2. Theory description and user manual. Alterra-report 1649, 262 pp, Alterra, Research Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/39776

Kroes, J.G. and J.C. van Dam (eds), 2003. Reference Manual SWAP version 3.0.3. Alterra-report 773, 211 pp, Alterra, Research Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/35471

Huygen, J., J.C. van Dam, J.G. Kroes, 2000. Swap Graphical User Interface,  User Manual, version January 2000, Alterra, Wageningen.

Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, J. Huygen, and R.W. Vervoort, 1999. User’s Guide of SWAP version 2.0. Simulation of water flow, solute transport and plant growth in the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant environment. Technical Document 48, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, Report 81, Department of Water Resources, Wageningen University, 127 p. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/222773

Van Dam, J.C., J. Huygen, J.G. Wesseling, R.A. Feddes, P. Kabat, P.E.V. van Walsum, P. Groenendijk and C.A. van Diepen, 1997. Theory of SWAP version 2.0. Simulation of water flow, solute transport and plant growth in the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant environment. Report 71, Subdep. Water Resources, Wageningen University, Technical document 45, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/222782

3.    Soil water flow

J.G Kroes, I. Supit, H.M. Mulder, J.C. van Dam, P.E.V. van Walsum (in review). Impact of capillary rise and recirculation on crop yields. In review at Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. Available at: http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/hess-2017-223/

Massop, H. T. L., Kroes, J. G., Vroon, H. R. J., & Mulder, H. M., 2014. Pilot SWAP berekening droogteschade. Vergelijking droogteschadeberekening volgens SWAP met de TCGB-tabel voor de waterwinning Vierlingsbeek. Rapport 2600. Alterra Rapport, 2600. In Dutch. Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/484563

Moene, A.F., and J.C. van Dam, 2014. Transport in the Atmosphere-Vegetation-Soil Continuum. Cambridge University Press, New York, 436 p.

Pollacco, J. A. P., & Mohanty, B. P., 2011. Uncertainties of Water Fluxes in SVAT Models Inverting Surface Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration Retrieved from Remote Sensing. Vadose Zone Journal. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2011.0167

Bonfante, A., Basile, A., Manna, P., & Terribile, F., 2011. Use of Physically Based Models to Evaluate USDA Soil Moisture Classes. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75(1), 181. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2009.0403

Bonfante, A., Basile, A., Acutis, M., De Mascellis, R., Manna, P., Perego, A., & Terribile, F., 2010. SWAP, CropSyst and MACRO comparison in two contrasting soils cropped with maize in Northern Italy. Agricultural Water Management, 97(7), 1051–1062. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.02.010

Jin, H., Zhongfu, W., & Shengxiu, G., 2011. Simulation of water dynamics of farmland in the piedmont plain of the Taihang Mountains in the North China Plain. Procedia Engineering, 12, 66–73. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.05.012

Baroni, G., Facchi, A., Gandolfi, C., Ortuni, B., Horeschi, D., & Van Dam, J. C., 2010. Uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters and its influence on the performance of two hydrological models of different complexity. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 251–270. Available at: http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/14/251/2010/

Feddes, R.A., G.H. de Rooij and J.C. van Dam (editors), 2004. Unsaturated zone modeling. Progress, challenges and applications. Wageningen UR Frontis Series, volume 6. Kluwer academic publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 364 p.

Eitzinger, J., Trnka, M., Hösch, J., Žalud, Z., & Dubrovský, M., 2004. Comparison of CERES , WOFOST and SWAP models in simulating soil water content during growing season under different soil conditions. Ecological Modelling, 171, 223–246. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2003.08.012

Kroes, J.G., J.G. Wesseling and J.C. Van Dam, 2000. Integrated modelling of the soil-water-atmosphere-plant system using the model SWAP 2.0 an overview of theory and an application. Hydrological Processes, 14, 1993-2002 (2000). Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1099-1085(20000815/30)14:11/12%3C1993::AID-HYP50%3E3.0.CO;2-%23/abstract

Van Dam, J.C., and R.A. Feddes, 2000. Simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow groundwater levels with the Richards' equation. Journal of Hydrology, 233: 72-85. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00227-4

Jong, R. de, and A. Bootsma, 1997. Estimates of water deficits and surpluses during the growing season in Ontario using the SWATRE model. Canadian Journal Soil Science, 77: 285-294.

Abenney-Mickson, S., A. Yomota, and T. Miura, 1997. Water balance of field plots planted with soybean and pumpkin. Transactions ASAE, 40: 899-909.

Hack-ten Broeke, M. J. D., & Hegmans, J. H. B. M., 1996. Use of soil physical characteristics from laboratory measurements or standard series for modelling unsaturated water flow. Agricultural Water Management, 29, 201–213. Available at: http://ac.els-cdn.com/0378377495011900/1-s2.0-0378377495011900-main.pdf?_tid=66c1ec0a-51b0-11e7-9c30-00000aacb360&acdnat=1497520554_88b55e47497bfce0a4439debb3bfe651

Qureshi, A.S., and S.A. Hussain, 1996. Soil water simulations in a lysimeter. In ‘Sustainability of irrigated agriculture: crop-water-environment models’, R. Ragab, D.E. El-Quosy, B.J. van den Broek and L.S. Pereira (Eds.), Proc. ICID congress, Sept. 1996, Cairo, Egypt, p. 163-174.

Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., J. Huygen, J.K. Schakel, and B.J. van den Broek, 1996. Modelling the soil-water-crop-atmosphere system to improve agricultural water management in arid zones (SWATRE). In ‘Dutch experience in irrigation water management modelling’, B.J. van den Broek (Ed.), Report 123, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, p. 13-30.

Beekma, J., T.J. Kelleners, T.M. Boers, and Z.I. Raza, 1995. Applications of SWATRE to evaluate drainage of an irrigated field in the Indus Plain, Pakistan. In ‘Crop-water-simulation models in practice.’ Proc. ICID Congress 1993, The Hague, The Netherlands, p. 141-160.

Clemente, R.S., R. de Jong, H.N. Hayhoe, W.D. Reynolds and M. Hares, 1994. Testing and comparisons of three unsaturated soil water flow models. Agricultural Water Management, 25: 135-152. Available at: http://ac.els-cdn.com/0378377494900418/1-s2.0-0378377494900418-main.pdf?_tid=a15360a6-51b0-11e7-b59f-00000aacb35d&acdnat=1497520652_71498202f80da7d5a221d15f364e1bd8

Feddes, R. A., Kabat, P., Bakel, P. J. T. Van, Bronswijk, J., & Halbertsma, J., 1988. Modelling soil water dynamics in the unsaturated zone - state of the art. Journal of Hydrology, 100, 69–111. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(88)90182-5

Belmans, C., Wesseling, J. G., & Feddes, R. A., 1983. Simulation model of the water balance of a cropped soil: SWATRE. Journal of Hydrology, 63, 271–286. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(83)90045-8

4.    Evapotranspiration

Bartholomeus, R. P., Stagge, J. H., Tallaksen, L. M., & Witte, J. P. M., 2015. Sensitivity of potential evaporation estimates to 100 years of climate variability. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 997–1014. Available at: http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-997-2015

Monaco, E., Bonfante, A., Alfieri, S. M., Basile, A., Menenti, M., & De Lorenzi, F., 2014. Climate change, effective water use for irrigation and adaptability of maize: A case study in southern Italy. Biosystems Engineering, 1–18. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.09.001

Minacapilli, M., Agnese, C., Blanda, F., Cammalleri, C., Ciraolo, G., D’Urso, G., Iovino, M., Pumo, D., Provenzano, G., Rallo, G., 2009. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration of Mediterranean perennial crops by means of remote-sensing based surface energy balance models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 13(7), 1061–1074. http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-1061-2009

Kamble, B., & Irmak, A., 2008. Assimilating Remote Sensing-Based ET into SWAP Model for Improved Estimation of Hydrological Predictions. Paper 38. Civil Engineering Faculty Publications., 38. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779530

Droogers, P., 2000. Estimating actual evapotranspiration using a detailed agro-hydrological model. Journal of Hydrology, 229: 50-58. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(99)00198-5

Kite, G.W., P. Droogers, 2000. Comparing evapotranspiration estimates from satellites, hydrological models and field data. Journal of Hydrology, 229: 3-18. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(99)00195-X

Tol, C. van der, 2000. Soil evaporation and plant transpiration as simulated by the FAO-56 method and the agrohydrological model SWAP. MSc-thesis, Subdep. Water Resources, Wageningen University.

5.    Irrigation management

Rallo, G., Agnese, C., Minacapilli, M., & Provenzano, G., 2012. Comparison of SWAP and FAO Agro-Hydrological Models to Schedule Irrigation of Wine Grapes. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 138(7), 581–591. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000435

Ma, Y., Feng, S., Huo, Z., & Song, X., 2011. Application of the SWAP model to simulate the field water cycle under deficit irrigation in Beijing, China. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 54(3–4), 1044–1052. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2010.11.034

Wang, D., & Cai, X., 2009. Irrigation Scheduling—Role of Weather Forecasting and Farmers’ Behavior. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 135(5), 364. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2009)135:5(364)

Vazifedoust, M., Vandam, J., Feddes, R., & Feizi, M., 2008. Increasing water productivity of irrigated crops under limited water supply at field scale. Agricultural Water Management, 95(2), 89–102. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.09.007

Blanda, F., Provenzano, G., Rallo, G., Minacapilli, M., & Agnese, C., 2008. Mediterranean environment assessing agro-hydrological models to schedule irrigation for crops of Mediterranean environment. Options Méditerranéennes, 284, 275–284.

Singh, R., Van Dam, J., & Feddes, R., 2006. Water productivity analysis of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India. Agricultural Water Management, 82(3), 253–278. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.07.027

Bessembinder, J., Leffelaar, P., Dhindwal, A., & Ponsioen, T., 2005. Which crop and which drop, and the scope for improvement of water productivity. Agricultural Water Management, 73(2), 113–130. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.10.004

Dam, J.C. van, and R.S. Malik (Eds.), 2003. Water productivity of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India. Integration of remote sensing, crop and soil models and geographical information systems. WATPRO final report, including CD-ROM. Available at: http://www.futurewater.nl/downloads/2003_VanDam_WatPro.pdf

Hack-ten Broeke, M. J. D., 2001. Irrigation management for optimizing crop production and nitrate leaching on grassland. Agricultural Water Management, 49, 97–114. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(00)00141-4

Droogers, P., W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, M. Beyazgül, Y. Kayam, G.W. Kite, H. Murray-Rust, 2000. Distributed agro-hydrological modeling of an irrigation system in western Turkey. Agricultural Water Management 43: 183-202. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(99)00055-4

Groot, W.J.M. de, and M.J.D. Hack-ten Broeke, 1999. Verification of irrigation planning with the hydrological model SWAP2.0. Report 661, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 80 p. (in Dutch).

Kuper, M., 1998. Irrigation management strategies for improved salinity and sodicity control. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, 238 p. Available at: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00422363/document

Hoven, C.A. van den, 1997. Regional water resources management in the Andean region with numerical models and satellite remote sensing. Evaluation of user’s oriented water application strategies in irrigation schems (Mendoza, Argentina) using a one-dimensional model of solute and unsaturated flow. Report 75.3, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 113 p.

Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., R. Singh, and S. Kumar, 1996. Analysis and recommendations for integrated on-farm water management in Haryana, India: a model approach. Report 118, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 152 p.

Wesseling, J. G., & Brandyk, T., 1985. Introduction of the occurrence of high groundwater levels and surface water storage in computer program SWATRE. ICW Nota 1636. Wageningen (The Netherlands). Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/214032

6.    Drainage conditions

Eeman, S., 2017. Dynamics of rainwater lenses on upward seeping saline groundwater. Wageningen University, PhD thesis. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/390156

Xu, X., Sun, C., Qu, Z., Huang, G., Ramos, T. B., & Huang, G., 2015. Groundwater recharge and capillary rise in irrigated areas of the upper yellow river basin assessed by an agro-hydrological model Irrigation and Drainage 64, 587-599. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1002/ird.1928

Pinto, V.M., K. Reichardt, J.C. van Dam, Q. de Jong van Lier, I.P. Bruno, A. Durigon, D. Dourado-Neto, R.P. Bortolotto, 2015. Deep drainage modeling for a fertigated coffee plantation in the Brazilian savanna. Agricultural Water Management 148, 130-140. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.09.029

Staarink, H., 2014. Water conservation and controlled drainage. A modelling study for an experimental field in the Netherlands. MSc thesis, Wageningen University.

Bennett, S. J., Bishop, T. F. a., & Vervoort, R. W., 2013. Using SWAP to quantify space and time related uncertainty in deep drainage model estimates: A case study from northern NSW, Australia. Agricultural Water Management, 130, 142–153. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.08.020

Xu, X., Huang, G., Sun, C., Pereira, L. S., Ramos, T. B., Huang, Q., & Hao, Y., 2013. Assessing the effects of water table depth on water use, soil salinity and wheat yield: Searching for a target depth for irrigated areas in the upper Yellow River basin. Agricultural Water Management, 125, 46–60. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2013.04.004

Akker, J. J. H. van den, Hendriks, R. F. A., Hoving, I. E., Meerkerk, B., Houwelingen, K. Van, Kleef, J. Van, Toorn, A. van den., 2013. Pilot onderwaterdrains Krimpenerwaard. Alterra-rapport 2466. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/280068

Cirkel, D. G., Witte, J.-P. M., & van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M., 2010. Estimating seepage intensities from groundwater level time series by inverse modelling: A sensitivity analysis on wet meadow scenarios. Journal of Hydrology, (385), 132–142. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.02.009

Peters, E., Bier, G., van Lanen, H. A. J., & Torfs, P. J. J. F., 2006. Propagation and spatial distribution of drought in a groundwater catchment. Journal of Hydrology, 321(1–4), 257–275. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.08.004

Wang, X., Hollanders, P. H. J., Wang, S., & Fang, S., 2004. Effect of field groundwater table control on water and salinity balance and crop yield in the Qingtongxia Irrigation District, China. Irrigation and Drainage, 53(3), 263–275. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1002/ird.117

Sarwar, A., W.M.G. Bastiaanssen, Th.M. Boers, and J.C. van Dam, 2000. Evaluating drainage design parameters for the fourth drainage project, Pakistan by using the SWAP model: Part 1: Calibration. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 14, 257-280.

Massop, H.T.H.L., T. Kroon, P.J.T. van Bakel, W.J. de Lange, A. van der Giessen, M.J.H. Pastoors, and J. Huygen, 2000. Hydrology for STONE; schematization and parameterization. Report 38, Serie Milieu Planbureau 9, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 101 p. (in Dutch).

Knotters, M., and J.G. de Gooijer, 1999. TARSO modeling of water table depths. Water Resources Research, 35: 695-705.

Bierkens, M.F.P., 1998. Modeling water table fluctuations by means of a stochastic differential equation. Water Resources Research, 34: 2485-2499.

Knotters, M., and P.E.V. van Walsum, 1997. Estimating fluctuation quantities from time series of water-table depths using models with a stochastic component. Journal of Hydrology, 197: 25-46. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221694/197

7.    Surface water management

Schipper, P., Groenendijk, P., Eekeren, N. van, Zanen, M. van, Rozemeijer, J., Jansen, G., & Swart, B., 2015. Goede grond voor een duurzaam watersysteem. STOWA rapport 2015-19. In Dutch. Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/489383

Bierkens, M.F.P., P.J.T. van Bakel, and J.G. Wesseling, 1999. Comparison of two modes of surface water control using a soil water model and surface elevation data. Geoderma, 89: 149-175.

Spieksma, J.F.M., J.M. Schouwenaars, and J. Blankenburg, 1996. Combined modelling of groundwater table and open water level in raised mires. Nordic Hydrology, 27: 231-246.

Massop, H.Th.L., J.M.P.M. Peerboom, and H.C. van Vessem, 1994. Effects of measures to alleviate desiccation at rural estate ‘De Wildenborch’. Report 342, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 128 p. (in Dutch).

8.    Plant growth

Bonfante, A., Impagliazzo, A., Fiorentino, N., Langella, G., Mori, M., & Fagnano, M., 2017. Supporting local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through giant reed ( Arundo donax L.) cultivation: An Italian case study. Science of The Total Environment, 601–602, 603–613. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.214

Hack-ten-Broeke, M. J. D., Kroes, J. G., Bartholomeus, R. P., Dam, J. C. Van, Wit, A. J. W. De, Supit, I., Walvoort, D. J. J., Bakel, P. J. T. van, Ruijtenberg, R., 2016. Quantification of the impact of hydrology on agricultural production as a result of too dry , too wet or too saline conditions. Soil, 2, 391–402. Available at: http://doi.org/doi:10.5194/soil-2-391-2016

Kroes, J., Groenendijk, P., Supit, I., Wit, A. de, Abelleyra, D. d., & Vero, S. R., 2016. Disentangle mechanisms of nitrogen and water availability on soybean yields. In F. Ewert, K. J. Boote, R. P. Rötter, P. Thorburn, & C. Nendel (Eds.), iCROPM2016. Crop Modelling for Agriculture and Food Security under Global Change. 15-17 March 2016, Berlin, Germany (Vol. 1, pp. 294–295). Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Kroes, J., Reidsma, P., Heinen, M., Oel, P. van, Feenstra, J., Dannenburg, M., & Ryan, A.-M., 2016. Final EURO-AGRIWAT conference Water Footprint of agricultural products : progress , challenges and solutions 7-9 March 2016 Wageningen. Book of Abstracts. In Water Footprint of agricultural products: progress, challenges and solutions. Available at:  http://edepot.wur.nl/380126

Kersebaum, K. C., Kroes, J., Gobin, A., Takác, J., Hlavinka, P., Trnka, M., Ventrella, D., Giglio, L., Ferrise, R., Moriondo, M., Marta, A. D., Luo, Q., Eitzinger, J., Mirschel, W., Weigel, H. J., Manderscheid, R., Hoffmann, M., Nejedlik, P., Iqbal, M. A., Hösch, J., 2016. Assessing Uncertainties of Water Footprints Using an Ensemble of Crop Growth Models on Winter Wheat. Water, 8(12), 571. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.3390/w8120571

De Jong van Lier, Q., O. Wendroth and J.C. van Dam, 2015. Prediction of winter wheat yield with the SWAP model using pedotransfer functions: an evaluation of sensitivity, parameterization and prediction accuracy. Agricultural Water Management 154, 29-42. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.02.011

Bonfante, A., Monaco, E., Alfieri, S. M., De Lorenzi, F., Manna, P., Basile, A., & Bouma, J., 2015. Climate Change Effects on the Suitability of an Agricultural Area to Maize Cultivation: Application of a New Hybrid Land Evaluation System. Advances in Agronomy, 133. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2015.05.001

Bonfante, A., & Bouma, J., 2015. The role of soil series in quantitative land evaluation when expressing effects of climate change and crop breeding on future land use. Geoderma, 259–260, 187–195. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.06.010

Yan, Y., 2015. Application of SWAP-WOFOST to evaluate the influence of water and oxygen stress on potato yield in a Dutch farm. MSc Thesis. Wageningen University.

Hao, F., Chen, S., Ouyang, W., Shan, Y., & Qi, S., 2013. Temporal rainfall patterns with water partitioning impacts on maize yield in a freeze-thaw zone. Journal of Hydrology. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.02.008

Wanti, S. R., 2012. Application of SWAP model to analyse the impact of drought and climate change on water demand and apple fruit crop yield in the Kromme Rijn area. MSc-thesis. Utrecht University.

Kroes, J. G., & Supit, I., 2011. Impact analysis of drought, water excess and salinity on grass production in The Netherlands using historical and future climate data. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 144(1), 370–381. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.09.008

Droogers, P., J.C. van Dam, J. Hoogeveen and R. Loeve, 2004. Adaptation strategies to climate change to sustain food security. In ‘Climate change in contrasting river basins’, CABI publisher, London, p. 49-74.

Li, K.Y., J.B. Boisvert, and R. de Jong, 1999. An exponential root water uptake model. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 79: 333-343.

Tedeschi, A., G. Barbieri, and M. Menenti, 1996. Impact of saline water on soil properties and crop yield: a simulation study. In ‘Sustainability of irrigated agriculture: crop-water-environment models’, R. Ragab, D.E. El-Quosy, B.J. van den Broek and L.S. Pereira (Eds.), Proc. ICID congress, Sept. 1996, Cairo, Egypt, p. 126-139.

Neut, D. van der, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes, 1995. Effects of higher surface water levels in ‘De Hoeksche Waard’. An evaluation of yield reductions of potatoes and sugar beets at 4 drainage depths during 42 years. Report 48, Subdep. Water Resources, Wageningen University, 69 p. In Dutch.

Broek, B.J. van den, and P. Kabat, 1995. SWACROP: dynamic simulation model of soil water and crop yield applied to potatoes. In ‘Modeling and parameterization of the Soil-Plant-Atmospere System. A comparison of potato growth models’, P. Kabat, B. Marshall, B.J. van den broek, J. Vos and H. van Keulen (Eds.), Wageningen Press, p. 299-334.

9.    Soil water extraction by roots

Bonfante, A., Alfieri, S. M., Albrizio, R., Basile, A., De Mascellis, R., Gambuti, A., Giorio, P., Langella, G., Manna, P., Monaco, E., Moio, L., Terribile, F. (2017). Evaluation of the effects of future climate change on grape quality through a physically based model application: a case study for the Aglianico grapevine in Campania region, Italy. In: Agricultural Systems, 152, 100–109. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2016.12.009

Marcos Alex dos Santos, Quirijn de Jong van Lier, Jos C. van Dam, Andre Herman Freire Bezerra, 2017. Benchmarking test of empirical root water uptake models. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21, 473-493, 2017. Available at: http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/21/473/2017/

de Jong van Lier, Q., van Dam, J. C., Durigon, A., Dos Santos, M. A., & Metselaar, K., 2013. Modeling Water Potentials and Flows in the Soil–Plant System Comparing Hydraulic Resistances and Transpiration Reduction Functions. Vadose Zone Journal, 12(3). Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2013.02.0039

Willigen, P. De, Dam, J. C. van, Javaux, M., & Heinen, M., 2012. Root Water Uptake as Simulated by Three Soil Water Flow Models. Vadose Zone Journal. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2012.0018

De Jong Van Lier, Q., Dam, J. C. Van, & Metselaar, K., 2009. Root Water Extraction under Combined Water and Osmotic Stress. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 73(3), 862–875. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2008.0157

Bartholomeus, R. P., Witte, J. M., Bodegom, P. M. Van, Dam, J. C. Van, & Aerts, R., 2008. Critical soil conditions for oxygen stress to plant roots : Substituting the Feddes-function by a process-based model. Journal of Hydrology. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.07.029

De Jong Van Lier, Q., Dam, J. C. Van, Metselaar, K., Jong, R. De, & Duijnisveld, W. H. M., 2008. Macroscopic Root Water Uptake Distribution Using a Matric Flux Potential Approach. Vadose Zone Journal, 7(3), 1065–1078. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0083

De Jong van Lier, Q., K. Metselaar and J.C. van Dam, 2006. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation. Vadose Zone Journal 5, 1264-1277. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2006.0056

Hupet, F., J.C. van Dam and M. Vanclooster, 2004. Impact of within-field variability of soil hydraulic functions on transpiration and crop yields: a numerical study. Vadose Zone Journal 3: 1367-1379. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2004.1367

Hupet, F., S. Lambot, R.A. Feddes, J.C. van Dam, M. Vanclooster, 2003. Estimation of root water uptake parameters by inverse modeling with soil water content data. Water Resources Research, Vol. 39, No. 11, 1312. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002046

Li, K. Y., Boisvert, J. B., & Jong, R. De., 1999. An exponential root-water-uptake model. Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

10. Soil moisture indicators for natural vegetations

Bartholomeus, R. P., Witte, J. P. M., Van Bodegom, P. M., Van Dam, J. C., & Aerts, R., 2011. Climate change threatens endangered plant species by stronger and interacting water-related stresses. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 116(4), 1–14. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1029/2011JG001693

Jansen, P.C., J. Runhaar, J.P.M. Witte, and J.C. van Dam, 2000. Wetness indication of grass vegetations in relation to the moisture status of soils. Report 057, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 59 p. (in Dutch)

Runhaar, J., J.P.M. Witte, and P.H. Verburg, 1997. Groundwater level, moisture supply, and vegetation in The Netherlands. Wetlands, 17: 528-538.

11. Salinization

Kumar, P., Sarangi, A., Singh, D. K., Parihar, S. S., & Sahoo, R. N., 2015. Simulation of salt dynamics in the root zone and yield of wheat crop under irrigated saline regimes using SWAP model. Agricultural Water Management, 148, 72–83. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.09.014

Oster, J. D., Letey, J., Vaughan, P., Wu, L., & Qadir, M., 2012. Comparison of transient state models that include salinity and matric stress effects on plant yield. Agricultural Water Management, 103, 167–175. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.11.011

Jiang, J., Feng, S., Huo, Z., Zhao, Z., & Jia, B., 2011. Application of the SWAP model to simulate water–salt transport under deficit irrigation with saline water. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 54(3–4), 902–911. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2010.11.014

Ben-Asher, J., J.C. van Dam, R.A. Feddes, and R.K. Jhorar, 2006. Irrigation of grapevines with saline water II Mathematical simulation of vine growth and yield. Agricultural Water Management, 83, 22-29. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.11.006

Su, N., Bethune, M., Mann, L., & Heuperman, A., 2005. Simulating water and salt movement in tile-drained fields irrigated with saline water under a Serial Biological Concentration management scenario. Agricultural Water Management, 78(3), 165–180. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.02.003

Smets, S.M.P., M. Kuper, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes, 1997. Salinization and crop transpiration of irrigated fields in Pakistan’s Punjab. Agricultural Water Management, 35: 43-60. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(97)00031-0

Feddes, R.A., and J.C. van Dam, 1997. Modelling of water flow and salt transport for irrigation management and drainage design. In ‘Water management, salinity and pollution control towards sustainable irrigation in the Meditterranean region’, Int. Conf., Sept. 1997, Bari, Italy, p. 145-179.

12. Solute transport

Pinto, V. M., Bruno, I. P., de Jong van Lier, Q., Dourado-Neto, D., & Reichardt, K., 2017. Environmental benefits of reducing N rates for coffee in the Cerrado. Soil and Tillage Research, 166, 76–83. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.10.006

Janssen, G. M. C. M., Fraters, B., Boumans, L. J. M., & Vrijhoef, A., 2013. Onderzoek naar vervangend rekenmodel om weersinvloeden op nitraatconcentraties te berekenen. Vergelijking van de modellen ONZAT, HYDRUS-1D en SWAP. Available at:  www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/680717033.pdf

Bonten, L. T. C., Kroes, J. G., Groenendijk, P., & van der Grift, B., 2012. Modeling diffusive Cd and Zn contaminant emissions from soils to surface waters. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 138–139, 113–122. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2012.06.008

Van Den Berg, F., Tiktak, A., Heuvelink, G. B. M., Burgers, S. L. G. E., Brus, D. J., de Vries, F., … Kroes, J. G., 2012. Propagation of uncertainties in soil and pesticide properties to pesticide leaching. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41(1), 253–61. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0167

Visser, A., Kroes, J., T H van Vliet, M., Blenkinsop, S., Fowler, H. J., & Broers, H. P., 2012. Climate change impacts on the leaching of a heavy metal contamination in a small lowland catchment. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 127, 47–64. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2011.04.007

Kroes, J., & Roelsma, J., 2007. Simulation of water and nitrogen flows on field scale : application of the SWAP – ANIMO model for the Müncheberg data set. In K. Ch. Kersebaum et al. (eds.), Modelling Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Soil–Crop Systems, 111–128. (pp. 111–128). Springer.

Peters, L., & Griffioen, J., 2005. Poriewaterstroming en -transport op perceelschaal. Quasi-2D versus 2D benadering. Stromingen, 11(2). In Dutch.

Feddes, R.A., and J.C. van Dam, 2002. Modelling water flow and solute transport for horticultural and environmental management. Acta Horticulturae, number 573, 107-117.

Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D., 2000. Nitrate leaching from dairy farming on sandy soils. Case studies for experimental farm De Marke. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 145 p. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/199017

Hack-ten Broeke, M. J. D., Schut, A. G. T., & Bouma, J., 1999. Effects on nitrate leaching and yield potential of implementing newly developed sustainable land use systems for dairy farming on sandy soils in the Netherlands. Geoderma, 217–235.

Hack-ten Broeke, M. J. D., & Putten, A. H. J. Van Der., 1997. Nitrate leaching affected by management options with respect to urine-affected areas and groundwater levels for grazed grassland. Agriculture , Ecosystems and Environment, 66, 197–210.

Groen, K.P., 1997. Pesticide leaching in polders. Field and model studies on cracked clays and loamy sand. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 296 p. Available at: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/193568

13.  Soil water flow as affected by soil spatial heterogeneity

Bonfante, A., Sellami, M. H., Abi Saab, M. T., Albrizio, R., Basile, A., Fahed, S., Giorio, P., Langella, G., Monaco, E., Bouma, J. (2017). The role of soils in the analysis of potential agricultural production: A case study in Lebanon. In: Agricultural Systems, 156(May), 67–75. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.05.018

van Schaik, N.L.M.B., A. Bronstert, S.M. de Jong, V.G. Jetten, J.C. van Dam, C.J. Ritsema, and S. Schnabel, 2013. Process-based modelling of a headwater catchment in semi-arid conditions: the influence of macropore flow. Hydrological Processes. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10086

Schaik, N.L.M.B., R.F.A. Hendriks, and J.C. van Dam, 2010. Parameterization of macropore flow using dye-tracer infiltration patterns in the SWAP model. Vadose Zone Journal, 9, 95-106. Available at: http://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2009.0031

Crescimanno, G., & Garofalo, P., 2005. Application and Evaluation of the SWAP Model for Simulating Water and Solute Transport in a Cracking Clay Soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69, 1943–1954. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0051

G. Kramers, J.C. van Dam, C.J. Ritsema, F. Stagnitti, K. Oostindie, and L.W. Dekker, 2005. A new modeling approach to simulate preferential flow and transport in water repellent porous media: Parameter sensitivity, and effects on crop growth and solute leaching. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 43, 371-382. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1071/SR04098

Ritsema, C. J., van Dam, J. C., Dekker, L. W., & Oostindie, K., 2005. A new modelling approach to simulate preferential flow and transport in water repellent porous media: Model structure and validation. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 43(3), 361. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1071/SR05054

Ritsema, C.J., J.C. van Dam, L.W. Dekker and K. Oostindie, 2001. Principles and modeling of flow and transport in water repellent surface layers, and consequences for management. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, 9, 3-11.

Kelleners, T.J., J. Beekma, and M.R. Chaudhry, 1999. Spatially variable soil hydraulic properties for simulation of field-scale solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Geoderma, 92: 199-215.

Kabat, P., R.W.A. Hutjes, and R.A. Feddes, 1997. The scaling characteristics of soil parameters: from plot scale heterogeneity to subgrid parameterization. Journal of Hydrology, 190: 363-396.

Finke, P.A., J.H.M. Wösten, and J.G. Kroes, 1996. Comparing two approaches of characterizing soil map unit behaviour in solute transport. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60: 200-205.

Dam, J.C. van, J.H.M. Wösten and A. Nemes, 1996. Unsaturated soil water movement in hysteretic and water repellent soils. Journal of Hydrology, 184, 153-173. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02996-6

Wösten, J.H.M., P.A. Finke, and M.J.W. Jansen, 1995. Comparison of class and continuous pedotransfer functions to generate soil hydraulic characteristics. Geoderma, 66: 227-237.

Vos, E. C., & Kooistra, M. J., 1994. The effect of soil structure differences in a silt loam soil under various farm management systems on soil physical properties and simulated land qualities. Agriculture , Ecosystems and Environment, 51(65), 227–238.

Boers, Th.M., 1994. Rain water harvesting in arid and semi-arid zones. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 133 p. Available at: http://edepot.wur.nl/74476

Feddes, R.A., G.H. de Rooij, J.C. van Dam, P. Kabat, P. Droogers, and J.N.M. Stricker, 1993. Estimation of regional effective soil hydraulic parameters by inverse modelling. In ‘Water flow and solute transport in soils: modelling and application’, D. Russo and G. Dagan (Eds.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 211-231.

Feddes, R.A., M. Menenti, P. Kabat, and W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, 1993. Is large scale inverse modelling of unsaturated flow with areal average evaporation and surface soil moisture as estimated from remote sensing feasible? Journal of Hydrology, 143: 125-152.

14.  Sensitivity analysis

Wanders, N., Karssenberg, D., Bierkens, M., Parinussa, R., de Jeu, R., van Dam, J., & de Jong, S., 2012. Observation uncertainty of satellite soil moisture products determined with physically-based modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment, 127(October 2011), 341–356. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.09.004

Droogers, P., Van Loon, A., & Immerzeel, W. W., 2008. Quantifying the impact of model inaccuracy in climate change impact assessment studies using an agro-hydrological model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 12(2), 669–678. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-12-669-2008

Wesseling, J.G., J.G. Kroes, and K. Metselaar, 1998. Global sensitivity analysis of the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) model. Report 160, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 67 p.

Finke, P.A., J.H.M. Wösten, and M.J.W. Jansen, 1996. Effects of uncertainty in major input variables on simulated soil behaviour. Hydrological Processes, 10: 661-669.

15. Regional analysis

Kroes, J., Boogaard, H., Yan, N., Zhang, M., Groenendijk, P., Supit, I., & Wit, A. de., 2016. Impact analyses of land use changes on soil nitrogen and crop water productivity in the delta of the Huanghe river. EO-BAR symposium, 16-17 May 2016, Beijing, China. In International Symposium on Earth Observation for One Belt. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.11.005

Noory, H., van der Zee, S. E. a. T. M., Liaghat, A.-M., Parsinejad, M., & van Dam, J. C., 2011. Distributed agro-hydrological modeling with SWAP to improve water and salt management of the Voshmgir Irrigation and Drainage Network in Northern Iran. Agricultural Water Management, 98(6), 1062–1070. Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.01.013

Singh, U. K., Ren, L., & Kang, S., 2010. Simulation of soil water in space and time using an agro-hydrological model and remote sensing techniques. Agricultural Water Management, 97(8), 1210–1220. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.03.002

Vazifedoust, M., J.C. van Dam, W.G.M. Bastiaanssen and R.A. Feddes, 2009. Assimilation of satellite data into agrohydrological models to improve crop yield forecasts. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 30, 2523-2545. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160802552769

Kroes, J. G., Schaap, J. D., Bolt, F. J. E. Van Der, Wolleswinkel, R. J. L.-, Roelsma, J., Schoumans, O. F., Leenders, T. P. V. T., 2008. Systeemanalyse voor het stroomgebied van de Krimpenerwaard. Fase 3 Monitoring Stroomgebieden Stroomgebieden. Wageningen. In Dutch.

Van Dam, J. C., Singh, R., Bessembinder, J. J. E., Leffelaar, P. A., Bastiaanssen, W. G. M., Jhorar, R. K., Kroes, J. G., Droogers, P., 2006. Assessing Options to Increase Water Productivity in Irrigated River Basins Using Remote Sensing and Modelling Tools. Water Resources Development, 22(1), 115–133. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500405734

Singh, R., Kroes, J. G., Dam, J. C. Van, & Feddes, R., 2006. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the performance of irrigation system in Sirsa district , India : I . Current water management and its productivity. Journal of Hydrology, 329, 692–713. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.03.037

Singh, R., R.K. Jhorar, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes, 2006. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the irrigation system performance in Sirsa district. II. Impact of alternative water management scenarios. Journal of Hydrology, 329, 714-723. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.03.016


Van Dam, J.C., and R.S. Malik (Eds), 2003. Water productivity of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India. Integration of remote sensing, crop and soil models and geographical information systems. WATPRO final report, including CD-ROM. ISBN 90-6464-864-6. 173 p. Available at:  http://www.futurewater.nl/downloads/2003_VanDam_WatPro.pdf

Jhorar, R.K., W.M.G. Bastiaanssen, R.A. Feddes, and J.C. van Dam, 2002. Inversely estimating soil hydraulic functions using evapotranspiration fluxes. Journal of Hydrology, 258, 198-213. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(01)00564-9

Feddes, R.A., G.H. de Rooij, J.C. van Dam, P. Kabat, P. Droogers and J.N.M. Stricker,  1993. Estimation of regional effective soil hydraulic parameters by inverse modelling. In 'Water flow and solute transport in soils: modelling and application' (Ed. D Russo and G Dagan), Springer Verlag.

16. Integration with other models

Xu, X., Huang, G., Zhan, H., Qu, Z., & Huang, Q., 2012. Integration of SWAP and MODFLOW-2000 for modeling groundwater dynamics in shallow water table areas. Journal of Hydrology, 412–413, 170–181. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.07.002

Immerzeel, W. W., Heerwaarden, C. C. Van, & Droogers, P., 2009. Modelling climate change in a Dutch polder system using the FutureViewR modelling suite. Computers & Geosciences, 35, 446–458. Available at:  http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2008.04.010

de Wit, A. J. W., van Diepen, C. A., & Kroes, J. G., 2005. Application of remote sensing data as inputs for the WOFOST 7.0 and SWAP 2.0 models. In Use and availability of meteorological information from different sources as input in agrometeorological models. COST718. Brussels Available at:  http://agromet-cost.bo.ibimet.cnr.it

Leistra, M., A.M.A. van der Linden, J.J.T.I. Boesten, A. Tiktak and F. van den Berg. 2001. PEARL model for pesticide behaviour and emissions in soil-plant systems. Description of processes. Alterra report 13, RIVM report 711401009, Alterra, Wageningen, 107 p.

Van den Berg, F., and J.J.T.I. Boesten, 1998. PEsticide Leaching and Accumulation model (PESTLA) version 3.4; description and user’s guide. Technical Document 43, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 150 p.

Ashby, M., A.J. Dolman, P. Kabat, E.J. Moors and M.J. Oginnk-Hendriks, 1996. SWAPS version 1.0. Technical reference manual. Technical Document 42. Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen.